Biosensors: a tool for progress

Biosensors consist of a biocatalyst that can detect a biological element and a transducer which can convert the combination event of the biocatalyst and the biological element into a detectable parameter. The biocatalyst can be biomolecules like, enzyme, DNA, RNA, metabolites, cells, oligonucleotides etc., and the transducers can be electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric, acoustics, calorimetric etc. In disease diagnostics biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, enzymes, nucleic acids have come into the field in recent years. Nanobiosensors exploiting the ultrasmall size and unique properties have also been used for engineering disease diagnostic biosensors. The use of biosensors can rapidly assess the health status, onset of the disease and its progression and can help to plan treatment for many diseases with the aid of multidisciplinary combination of chemistry, medical science and nanotechnology. The devices are cost effective, highly sensitive, rapid, user friendly and can be produced in bulk for human use. This review focuses on the different biosensors for the diagnosis of three major diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

REF: Sanjay Kisan Metkar, Koyeli Girigoswami, Diagnostic biosensors in medicine – A review, Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 17, 2019, Pages 271-283, ISSN 1878-8181